Nocturia is the waking up at night to empty the bladder and is more common in the older population. As you get older your bladder loses it elasticity and your circulatory system may become less efficient, so that some fluids are left behind in the body's tissues and then when you lie down at night it becomes easier for the circulatory system to work, reabsorbing the fluids into the blood, which are then filtered through the kidneys and sent to the bladder as urine. As a result, the bladder fills much more rapidly when sleeping than normal.

Additionally, the prostate gland becomes enlarged in almost all men as they get older, known as Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH).  More than 80% of all men over 80 have enlarged prostate glands, which restricts the bladder outlet meaning that it never completely empties, therefore it takes a shorter time for it to fill again. The Epiomic database sub-divides the patient population by the presence of BPH along with other co-morbidities including diabetes, hypertension, urinary incontinence and chronic heart failure, to give a complete picture of the market landscape.

Nocturia can be caused by polyuria, nocturnal polyuria or bladder storage disorder. Those with polyuria have increased total urine production, those with nocturnal polyuria only have increased urine production at night, and those with bladder storage disorders make frequent, but small volume voids. These can all individually be caused by different things, for example alcohol can cause nocturnal polyuria and diabetes can cause polyuria. The Epiomic database provides accurate information about the aetiology of nocturia to provide a deeper insight into the complexities of the disease.